Jennifer Ellison-Brown | The skeletal system

first_img All freely movable joints share features which prevent friction between moving bones. One of the main features is the presence of synovial fluid between the moving bones. The bones are held together by slightly elastic fibres called ligaments, which allow the bones to move. Any damage to the ligament results in the joint losing some of its strength and stability. Joints work smoothly together when we perform sporting activities. They must be capable of their full range of movement in order to work well. The demands of sport put severe stress on joints. Therefore, it is essential to warm up before an activity and cool down after the activity. Joints can be injured as a result of impact, internal forces or a mixture of both. Examples are sprains, torn ligament and dislocation. That’s it for this week’s lesson. See you next week as we continue with the skeletal system. In these, a small amount of movement can occur. The bones are linked by cartilage. Cartilage is a tough but flexible cushion of tissue that stops the bones from knocking together (friction) and can also compress a little to allow slight movement. Slightly movable joints are found between most of the vertebrae in the vertebral column and the joint between the ribs and sternum. Freely movable joints (synovial) Bone Growth The human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. The skeleton is the framework of the body. Without it, the body would be shapeless. The bones are shaped according to their function. Bones may be: – Long, as in the arm and legs – Flat, as the sternum and scapula – Short as in the ankles and wrist – Irregular, as in the vertebrae – Round, as in the patellae The bones of the arms, legs, shoulders and pelvis make up the appendicular skeleton. The bones of the skull and face and the auditory ossicle, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum make up the axial skeleton. Bones develop in the growing foetus through a process called ossification. The skeleton is completely formed by the end of the third month of gestation (pregnancy). After birth, bone growth proceeds from the epiphyseal plates (growth plates). Growth proceeds from the end towards the centre of the bone. When the bone has reached its full size and growth ceases, the epiphyseal growth centres are replaced by bone cells. Longitudinal (length) bone growth and ossification usually continue in girls until about age 15 and age 16 in boys. However, bones continue to mature and develop their final shape until about 21 years of age. The whole growth process is controlled by hormones. If there are too many growth hormones, the cartridge in the plates grows too fast and result in gigantism, while too little hormone leads to dwarfism. Bone formation and resorption are caused by the actions of osteoblast and osteoclast. Osteoblast makes new bone, and at the same time, cells called osteoclast break it down. Exercise cause osteoblast to work harder. But, extreme training especially with weights at young age, can result in problem with bone deformity. Bones get more fragile as you age and can get weak and break easily (osteoporosis), especially in women. Fixed or immovable joints (fibrous) Functions of Bones Slightly movable joints (cartilaginous) Nutrients and Bone Growth Joints In these, bones are fused together by tough fibres. These types of joints are found in areas requiring strength. Examples are the joint between the plates of the cranium (skull) and the fused joints in the sacrum. There are five principal functions of bones. They: – support the body, enabling you to stand erect – protect the internal organs and tissues – assist movement by coordination with muscles and joints – provide storage areas for minerals – serve as sites for formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow (haematopoiesis). The most important nutrients for growth are: – proteins – build cells and repair damaged tissues. Found in milk, cheese, eggs, fish, pulses and nuts. – vitamins – vitamin D helps with the absorption of calcium and is found in milk, fish, liver and eggs. The body also makes it with sunshine. – minerals – calcium, which give strong bones and teeth, is found in milk, cheese fish and green vegetables. A joint is where two (2) or more bones meet (articulate). There are over 100 joints in the body. Joints are divided into three (3) types based on the amount of movement they allow.last_img read more

Shadow boxing – Local gyms appeal for help … JBBC to develop national gyms

first_img PROPER EQUIPMENT GRANT WANTS OWN PLACE One gym with no equipment problem is Bruising gym. Owner Carl Grant ‘begs’ when he travels and only needs a place to open a full-time gym. “When I travel, I tell them in Jamaica, we have no gear. When competitions are over, I beg gear. I own a truck, so it’s easy to move stuff,” he said. Some equipment he got through a friend who looked them up online and sent a barrel with shoes, gloves, gear and punching bags. “I can host a tournament and have gear for the opposition and my team. But I can’t sit and wait on the boxing board,” he continued. NO EQUIPMENT PROBLEM Grant now wants his own place. He says a location has been identified for development. “We get the privilege to use the Rocky Valley Community Centre for nine years, but we outgrew it. We need an indoor gym that can open 24 hours. Member of Parliament Juliet Cuthbert-Flynn is looking about a piece of land, and the Sport Development Foundation said if I can show proper documentation, they will fund it,” he said. His setback is lack of running water. “We (centre) just need water and a place to call our own, but, otherwise, we are alright. If they (the board) need results, they must put in resources, and they are not doing that,” he added. For Wallace, it’s distressing not having a reliable training venue. “The main thing we need is a space. If Government can help us get somewhere, it would be good. They promised to develop somewhere near six years ago, but I can’t put my faith in that. I need somewhere I can call Sugar Knockout. I tried at home, but the space is too small. I tried it in Waterhouse, but some people don’t want things to be better between the communities,’ he added.center_img Jamaica Boxing Board of Control president Stephen ‘Bomber’ Jones has admitted that local gyms need more equipment. However, plans are afoot to develop two national gyms. “The only thing missing is equipment. The focus is on a national gym, which will look more professional. We will build the national gym, Stanley Couch, and we are working on having another in Montego Bay. I will be comfortable having two gyms we can be proud of, then we can assist others with resources we have,” he said. Jamaica’s proud and decorated boxing history and the great boxers of the ’70s and ’80s were a result of the inspiration and foundation of local boxing gyms. However, in the ’90s, most of those facilities, like the Guinness and Dragon Gyms, closed. As a result, the enthusiasm and success went with them. Recently, Wray and Nephew has attempted to revive boxing with the ‘Contender Series’ and gyms have popped up all over again, with young and inspired boxers again dreaming of being world champions. Can these gyms again produce world beaters, the likes of Mike McCallum, Richard ‘Shrimpy’ Clarke, Bunny Grant, Percy Hayles, Uriah Grant, the late Trevor Berbick and Donovan ‘Razor’ Ruddock? The reality of present-day Jamaican gyms leave a lot to be desired. A visit to Sugar Knockout Gym in Olympic Gardens and the Bruising Gym in Stony Hill revealed that gyms are short on equipment and most are on borrowed space and time and need somewhere to call home. “Nobody give us anything,” Lindel ‘Sugar’ Wallace, Sugar Knockout Gym founder, told us. “The boxing board gave us a glove we use (in training) and it’s the same gloves we use to fight. We need a mid-section ball, speed ball, punching bag, skipping rope, mouthpiece and bandages, and I am not getting any help and I would be glad if I could get some,” he said In two months, Jones wants proper equipment at the Stanley Couch Gym and intends to have regular fights there “weekly or every two weeks’. While in Montego Bay, he wants a location where anyone can work out. “National boxers will be free, but we will seek membership so the gym take care of itself,” he reasoned. Both Grant and Wallace also believe Wray and Nephew can also do a lot more to assist the gyms.last_img read more

Sangalang celebrates birthday with Magnolia win over Alaska

first_imgScottie Thompson also worthy of Finals MVP, thinks Cone Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ’a duplicitous move’ – Lacson OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ‘a duplicitous move’ – Lacson Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netTurning 26 on Wednesday, Ian Sangalang was elated that his birthday wish came true in the form of Magnolia’s 108-95 win over Alaska to start the 2018 PBA Philippine Cup.“I’m so happy. This is the gift I wished for because we need a good start. Every game counts so we really needed this game,” he said.ADVERTISEMENT Jiro Manio arrested for stabbing man in Marikina Brian Heruela arrival bolsters Phoenix backcourt, defense Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next MOST READ McCarthy guarantees win for Kia Sangalang also had a lot to do with fulfilling his wish.The 6-foot-7 bruiser pumped in a double-double of 13 points, 10 boards with four blocks as he held the fort for the Hotshots’ depleted frontline.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSangalang also found inspiration with the way top gun Paul Lee gave a good account of himself, pouring in 30 points in his first game coming off a knee injury.“They really sacrificed for the team. When you’re coming from injury, it takes a long time before you can recover. But we really saw Paul’s heart for the game. He stepped up and showed us a way to win and I really salute him for that,” he said. Meralco ‘never the same’ after Almazan injury in PBA Finals Winning wasn’t the only thing that made Sangalang’s day special. He’s also happy to see his former college teammate Ronald Pascual make a successful return to the PBA.“I’m so happy for Ronald because he did his best to return to the PBA,” he said of his fellow  San Sebastian alum.Pascual was out of the league after an unceremonious run at San Miguel, GlobalPort and Blackwater, where he languished on the bench. Luckily for him, he was able to pick himself up and get a fresh start with ALAska where he was reunited with his other college teammate Calvin Abueva.“Ronald is a good person. Maybe he got frustrated when his dad died, but I’m happy that he’s back inside the court playing again. I’m happy that he’s still blessed until now,” he said.ADVERTISEMENT Steam emission over Taal’s main crater ‘steady’ for past 24 hours Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew LATEST STORIES Redemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie Thompson View commentslast_img read more

Terminators, Galaxy Draw in Bomi County

first_imgTerminators FC of APM Terminals Limited of Monrovia in their first outing in Tubmanburg, Bomi County, forced locals, Galaxy Oldtimers Sports Association, to a 1-1 draw, reports Omari Jackson.The friendly match was played last Sunday, April 27, at the C. H. Deweh sports pitch before a large crowd with the locals’  Athanasiue N. Torborg converting a penalty kick to take the lead in the second half after a goalless first half.The sports hungry fans had an afternoon of fun as old timers juggled the ball back and forth, and missing possible goals.Terminators FC’s technical director J. Armah Baxter featured briefly in a match that was meant to let APM Terminals Limited workers exercise their body, since all work without play, makes Jack a dull boy.Also on hand to show his skills was Liberia’s ex most celebrated soccer star, James Salinsa Debbah, the current technical director of the Barrolle Sports Association.Debbah’s presence brought some attention from the locals, especially those who were old enough to have seen the former soccer star in action. Many took pictures with him.On the game itself, the visitors dominated in the first half, with striker Nicholas Sieh performing his worst, as he fumbled on several occasions and could not discover his scoring boots.Both teams had near scoring chances but it was when James Debbah was brought in that the game changed dramatically. Salinsa, still possessing some of the qualities that made him Liberia’s most celebrated player, made clever passes to his men upfront and it was during his corner-kick that diminutive player Dakina Pederson headed home the equalizer.As the game came to a close, striker Nicholas Sieh has the glorious opportunity to have increased the tally and become the hero but he fumbled to end the game in a draw.Earlier, the team visited two areas of interest: the Blue Lake and the Liberia Government Hospital. At the hospital Dr. Gabriel Gorbee Logan, MD, took the team to tour the hospital.Technical director Baxter, James Debbah and several others presented biscuits to kids admitted to the hospital and wished them early recovery.The team spent some time at the Blue Lake and many of the players appealed to authorities to make it an income generation site.Meanwhile, Armah presented a soccer ball to their host, and told journalists that it was one way of identifying with the Galaxy Oldtimers Sports Association in a county of his birth.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Disabled Community Wants Board Reconstituted

first_imgThe disabled community, comprising the deaf, blind and other categories of people living with disabilitis, is calling on President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Vice President Joseph N. Boakai,  to reconstitute its board and the present leadership of the National Commission on Disabilities (NCD).According to them, their suggestion should be considered as part of the upcoming new appointments in government.The group, some of whom walked into the offices of the Daily Observer yesterday, issued a statement signed by Thompson Wialison, chair of the Steering Committee of the National Union of Organizations for the Disabled (NUOD).  In their statement, the NUOD commended President Sirleaf and Veep Boakai for their efforts in supporting the welfare of Liberians with disabilities, but said the greatest gift they desire for now is the appointment of three new directors of the NCD.“The Disabled Community wishes to remind President Sirleaf that on June 4 last year,  the Civil Service Agency (CSA) conducted an interview for the three positions at the NCD— the executive director, deputy for administration, and deputy director for technical services.   [Several qualified] disabled were interviewed and subsequently forwarded by the CSA to the office of the V.P. for onward submission to the office of the President for official appointment.  “Since the process started,” the NUOD noted, “there have been some “unfortunate” delays among the bureaucrats regarding the submission of the names to the office of the President for appointment of the three new NDC directors.The disabled group is reminding the office of the V.P. to speedily submit the names to the office of the President so that [appropriate action] relative to the appointment of the three new NCD directors would be taken.The Disabled Community has further applauded President Sirleaf and Veep Boakai for their numerous official lobbying initiatives with the international community for assistance to enhance their welfare, especially in the fight to contain the Ebola virus disease (EVD).   Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Linden gets new Mayor

first_imgLinden’s two-time Deputy Mayor Waneka Arindell was on Friday elected Mayor of the town in an undisputed move by Councillors within the Linden municipality, as the Council hosted its mayoral elections.Mayor Waneka Arindell and new Deputy Mayor Wainewright Bethune shake hands following the electionsCouncillor and Head of the Town Council’s Environmental Committee, Wainewright Bethune has been elected Deputy Mayor. Bethune and Councillor Leroy James contested for the post, which ended in victory for Bethune. Meanwhile, all 10 Councillors present at the proceedings voted in favour of Councillor Derron John to continue to serve as Chairman of the Council’s Finance Committee. Speaking with the media following the elections, the newly-elected Mayor noted that it was now a higher level of service-hood and being able to serve.“For 2018, I hope that we can have a Council that will work together, because we did make lots of promises to the people of Linden. We have roads to fix; we have garbage to pick up; we have businesses that should have been able to develop and that’s the vision we want to move forward with in 2018. To make sure that that mandate, that we’re able to give it to the people,” she said.Meanwhile, the new Deputy Mayor, in an invited comment, noted that one of his focuses would be the municipal council’s by-laws in terms of housing to curb environmental issues such as waste management.“All the other things that we’ve campaigned for, some of the things that we’ve been doing for the past two years, it’s just to take it from there and to encounter the Council to gel and work as a team in 2018,” he noted.Arindell has been elected to the post, which was held by two-time serving Mayor Carwyn Holland, who was noticeably absent from the proceedings on Friday. Holland, a few days ago, announced that he would not be contesting for a third term.last_img read more

Can Arsenal fans believe it is 11 years since this incredible European victory?

first_imgArsenal play host to Borussia Dortmund on Wednesday evening, knowing that only victory will do if they are to guarantee passage to the knock-out stages of the Champions League.In the previous round of group matches, the Gunners surrendered a 3-0 lead over Anderlecht to eventually draw 3-3 and their recent capitulation to Manchester United in the Premier League has left Gooners fearing the worst as Dortmund come to town.The German giants may be enduring their own domestic struggles, but in European competition they have been imperious, claiming maximum points so far.However, Arsenal’s current predicament isn’t too dissimilar to the one that preceded on of the club’s most famous nights in the Champions League, back in November 2003.In need of victory to boost their chances of progression, the Gunners faced heavy favourites Inter Milan, a team that had dished out a lesson to the north Londoners earlier on in the competition.But what happened next was something truly special.last_img read more

Denise Hover

first_imgI had a tree on my car in the Rio Hondo parking lot and was scared driving from Rio Hondo to South Whittier where I lived. Chimneys and people were all over the streets. Just serene. I grabbed my sister and cousins from Cal High, got everyone home safe to my grandparents’ home in Whittier and called my parents, who were working in Long Beach. We were all OK, as was Whittier. What a great place to live and a great recovery!!! You could hear the roar coming up the hill of the earthquake as I was taking an algebra test at Rio Hondo. I had a 7 a.m. class and was almost done with the test. When the professor handed the test back the next week, you could see the difference in my writing on the last problem I worked. Illegible. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more


first_imgLARGO foods – based in Gaoth Dobhair and Ashbourne – is making more profits.The company said turnover was down – but profits were up.And that it has restructured its loan agreements. More here: DOBHAIR COMPANY MAKES HUGE PROFIT was last modified: November 25th, 2011 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img


first_imgPhoto: L – R, Sandra Stewart (secretary), Ms. Niamh Crumlish (Junior Room Teacher) and Ms. Fiona Farry (principal) with new junior infants)It has been a busy couple of weeks in Scoil Cholmcille as our six new junior infants and new 5th class girl got settled in to the school for the first time.The new principal Ms. Fiona Farry also commenced her new role this month, and she knows a thing or two about football – she’s from Kerry!She has spent 17 years teaching in a wide variety of roles in a large primary school in Monaghan. She was warmly welcomed by parents and pupils alike. (Photo: L – R, Sandra Stewart (secretary), Ms. Niamh Crumlish (Junior Room Teacher) and Ms. Fiona Farry (principal) with new junior infants).Since then it has been a return to day to day school routine, but with a little extra excitement of preparing for the All- Ireland final! Bunting has been put up outside the school and students have been busy with artwork and of course learning “Jimmy’s Winning Matches”!!   COUNTDOWN TO CROKER – SCOIL CHOLMCILLE CLOUGHFIN GO DONEGAL MAD! was last modified: September 20th, 2012 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:ballindraitCOUNTDOWN TO CROKER – SCOIL CHOLMCILLE CLOUGHFIN GO DONEGAL MAD!last_img read more